No viruses and no spyware does not mean its more secure.

September 9, 2008 2 comments

I hear this argument all the time that Mac OS X is better than windows becuase it is more secure.  The proof alot of people stat is there are very few virus and spyware on OS X.  Yes that is true there are also very few on OS/2 warp, minux, BeOS, windows 3.11, NT 3.51, Irix, linux, solaris, BSD, and pretty much every other operating system know to man compared to windows.  That doesn’t make them more secure.  That makes them a small target compared to windows, it doesn’t make OS X more secure.  There is a reason why tons of bugs were found in safari when Apple ported it to windows.  Was the code so different from the OS X code base?  I doupt it, there are many more automated security tools build for use on windows which also makes it that much easier to find the flaws in XP and Vista than in OS X.  Any one who thinks apple cares that much about security let me remind you it took apple three weeks to patch the DNS vulnurability!!  Weeks after there were working exploits.  The larger the market share grows for Apple the more virus and malware you will see released targeting OS X.

Apple fan boys please don’t bug me.  I personally use a mac as my main lap top now.  I personally like OS X better than Vista and XP because I am a unix fan boy.   But that is a personal choice.  Also Linux fan boys I love linux and am a RHCE but I need an OS for my day to day work where I don’t have to wory about breaking everything because I upgraded lib c compat, or installed a new kernel.  I run Cent OS on all my servers when I can and I also have another Ubuntu laptop that I use for certain security tools.  Windows fan boys, securing mainly windows boxs is my bread and butter.  Windows with AD in an enterprise is the way to go.

Categories: misc

Open Source Asset Tracking software

July 17, 2008 Leave a comment

The University of Washington has released a free and open source system for tracking computers called Adeona.  I have installed it on my work laptop and it gets the job done.  This is a great solution for home users as it works on Linux, Mac, and PC and doesn’t require anything else from the user as far as a server or service fee to use it.  There are some defiant short comings though.

  • First as with all non BIOS tracking software this won’t work if a thief wipes the drive without booting up.
  • Second it sends the location data pseudo randomly every half hour, so if a thief boots a laptop and sees a login screen and shuts it down, it probably won’t be recorded.
  • Third would be a nightmare to mass deploy.  I have thousands of computers I would want to install this on.  To do this I would have to manually install it on everyone since it asks questions during the install and you have to copy a file to a central server that you have to have to check on the location data.
  • Fourth it uses OpenDHT to store the location information.  I don’t trust the stability of an open source distributed storage system that anyone can use for distributed storage.  Its only a matter of time before this starts to be used to distribute illegal material or the popularity of it cripples it.  I am all for open access to things but time and time again a few people always ruin it.

For my purposes I think it would be better just to write a program that posts the computer name and IP address to web server that stores the information in a MySQL database.

Categories: Security

Roku Netflix Player

July 4, 2008 Leave a comment

There has been some buzz about the Roku netflix player releasing some of its source code. The thing is they have to release the code as its GPL open source code that they modified. The truth is the code should have been available since day 1. This is no different than the Tivo source code that has been released. They didn’t release any of their proprietary code. Now that I know that this is based on Linux though this should hopefully be pretty hackable. It would be great if Xvid and H.264 support can be added. Then I won’t have to use my noisey Xbox 360 to stream my movies off my computer.

Categories: Geeky stuff

Linux Cisco VPN

April 11, 2008 Leave a comment

The Linux Cisco VPN client seems to try the first avalable interface to make a connection. In my case this was eth0 which is my wired port which isn’t connected to anything. In order to get it to work I had to down the interface with ifconfig eth- down then it would connect fine with my wireless interface eth1. I haven’t seen any documentation to see if there is a way to manually bind it to a specific interface, and there is no MAN page installed. At least –help gives some usage, which is heads and shoulders over the tsmc tivoli command line I was using today what a royal PITA. Just encase anyone needs it the command to restore a previous version of a file is “tsmc restore -todate=yyyy-mm-dd -inactive /path/to/file” the documentation gave the format for the date as mm/dd/yyyy and the command would just come back and say -todate not recognized. Not wrong date format no that would have saved Jeff an hour of goggling.

Categories: Geeky stuff, Security

PCI, Why store Credit Card Numbers?

October 5, 2007 Leave a comment

Well it has been a while since I have posted anything.  I have been really busy this past month.  I was promoted to the  IT security  manager  at my current employer.   I am now dealing with IT security almost full time, they still need to fill my vacant position.  So I am much happier now not having to deal with a lot of the boring mundane task, and now instead get to do what I love, security.

I was reading another blog security blog entry and it got me thinking.  Why do POS systems have to store credit card numbers?  There really is no rational reason that I can think of.  I have had quite a bit of experience with a POS POS system (note that isn’t a mistake only 1 POS means Point of Sales).   The way credit card transactions work is that the stores POS system calls a card processing system.  The stores computer then asks the card processors computer if this credit card has enough money to cover this purchase.  If it does then it “reserves” these funds for the store for some time period and gives the store a magic approval number, no actual money is taken at that time.  I don’t know exactly why they do this, my guess is that they reserve a slightly higher amount of money than is actually needed so that it can be adjusted down if the transaction needs to be modified, IE you give the waiter a tip or you decide you really don’t want to buy that Iphone.

The store will then within a day or two do a batch settlement transaction where the store goes back to the card processor and says yes all these transactions really did happen so send us money.

So the only point in that process where the store actually needs the credit card number is the first transaction to the card processor.  After that the store could just use the unique authorization number to identify the transaction.  So now a hacker could still get credit card numbers but only in real time sniffing all the transactions as they go instead of the cue de gra 18 months or more that they currently can get if they hack into a POS system.

Categories: Security

Electronic voting reform

August 8, 2007 Leave a comment

I live in California where the Secretary of State Debra Bowen has allowed The University of California to test the E-Voting systems used in here in California.  What they found was that all of them are hackable. I find the preliminary findings very scary but not at all surprising.  The legislature of California are not Computer Security Experts but they should have consulted with and let Security Professionals verify that they were secure before Certifying the systems.  It is inexcusable to allow what is arguably the most important Computer System in the country to be so insecure.  These machines are what decide our election.  If you could modify the election results you could execute a bloodless coup and no one would be the wiser.   No one could prove that an election had been stolen if there is no paper trail.

I will give you one scenario.  All the electronic voting machines are stored in some medium security warehouse with a few guards and 1 or 2 cameras.  A disgruntled technician from company XYZ that makes $20,000 a year maintains voting machines is payed some large sum to hack the companies voting machines.  He is admitted entry into the facility do do “maintenance” He turns them all on and one by one inserts a USB thumb drive that installs a virus on each machine.  He also updates the BIOS and changes the checksum check that is used to verify that the operating system is certified, just like he has to do when he installs any patch.  This virus will change the vote on 41% of the votes in the favor of candidate FOO.  Thus virtually insuring victory.  This virus then removes all traces of itself and restores the correct checksum back into the BIOS at 7:55PM on election day.  With the current systems that have no paper trail and no one would find out unless someone starts looking at the technicians large bank account.

I am not saying to go back to all paper ballets, to me this is even more error prone and hackable than E-voting.  Just make up some ballet boxes and switch them in transit to the registrars office.  No to me the problem is fairly trivial technologically speaking.  The solution is 3 fold.  First and most simple a paper copy must be printed out and verified correct by the voter.  Thus ensuring a backup in case the electronic version is lost or tampered with.

The second part of my proposed solution is PKI (Public Key Infrastructure).  Each voter should be assigned a private key, a 3D bar code would work nicely.  This key should be assigned completely at random and only good for 1 election so that voting patterns couldn’t be data mined and somehow connect to an individual, there should also be no record kept of the voters private key only their public key should be kept.  This private key should be encrypted with a master public key so that there is no way a voters private key and identity could be obtained by coping it in transit unless the person also had the master private key.  The voter then would then scan their bar code and the voting machine would verify that it is a legitimate key by decrypting the key with the master private key.  The voter would then vote and the results would be signed with the users private key, and also be printed out.  If the results were tampered with the signature would not match and it would be obvious that the results were tampered with.  If two different votes were signed with the same private key you would also know that the user voted twice and to trow out all other votes signed with the same signature.   The  public keys and paper copies should be escrowed so that recounts could be done for some defined time.

The last and most important is both the physical security and openness of the system.  The inputs should be protected with 3DES encryption so that only certified devices could be plugged in.  No uncertified devices should be allowed on the system.  No one should be able to plug a key board in.  The case should be wielded shut and painted with a heat sensitive paint so any attempted tampering would be apparent.  The system should be completely open source from the OS to the voting software so that all code can be freely audited.  It someone did manage to hack the system the paper backup should throw up the red flag that the system was compromised.  The system should also be on an encrypted EEPROM so that even if you get into the case you can’t modify the EEPROM with out the key.  The key should be on a physically separate  dongle that is  locked up  separate from the voting machine and must be present when booting the machine and removed thereafter.  If any dongle is lost then all the dongles will have to be replaced and the EEPROM reprogrammed so it is very important that they don’t go missing.  The systems should never be plugged into an open network.  The system that collects the votes should also have a certificate assigned to it and stored on the voting machines so that the voting machines don’t disclose voting results to an unauthorized system.

All of this technology is common and in use today.  We need to reform the voting system so that we implement this as soon as possible.  If we don’t we may soon find our country not in our control anymore.  I don’t go into all the details about the system but I would love feedback, what are the weaknesses in the system I described.  If done correct E-Voting is both more efficient and more secure than paper based voting alone.

Categories: Geeky stuff, Security

CISSP

July 23, 2007 Leave a comment

I just got the email I passed the CISSP exam that I took July 7th.  I just have to get my endorsement letter signed by my boss and send in my resume to ISC2.  I am glad I passed especially since it cost $500.00 of my own money.  Hopefully this will open up some doors professionally. I studied off and on for 2 months and crammed like crazy the last week.  I used the official ISC2 CISP book to do most of my studying but also took some practice tests that I found, and reviewed Shon Harris’s CISSP All in one Exam Guide book for some of my weaker areas.

Categories: misc, Security

Truncating Microsoft sql transaction logs

June 17, 2007 Leave a comment

I rarely touch MS SQL but I have to administer 2 instances, so I have had to learn some of the administrative tasks that have to be done from time to time. One of the less obvious task is truncating transaction logs. The MS SQLs transaction logs can get out of hand on databases that do a lot of writes. MS SQL does not purge transactions that have been committed in case you want to roll the database back to a point in time.  At some point after a back up you will probably want to get rid of the old data as it can quickly fill your hard drive. You have to manually truncated the old transactions by running

BACKUP LOG databasename WITH TRUNCATE_ONLY


The easiest way to do this is to open up query optimizer and run it from there.

That will flush out all the old transactions that have already been committed to the database.  This however does not resize the file.  You will have to manually do this in enterprise manager by choosing shrink database.  If you have a scheduled maintenance plan that covers resizing; it will take place on its own the next time it is scheduled.

Categories: Geeky stuff

Snort IDS

May 22, 2007 Leave a comment

I am redoing the IDS system at work.  The current IDS uses snort and BASE.  Base just isn’t able to keep up under the current load.  We got a new quad core server with 4 gigs of ram that should do nicely for base.  I also decided to redo the sensors at the same time.  They were both running FreeBSD and I wanted to go to CentOS 5 because I am much more familiar with it than FreeBSD.  I installed CentOS 5 and did a test run with tcpdump.   It just can’t keep up the kernel is dropping packets even when loging just the raw packets to a file.  The traffic isn’t huge its about 3000 packets per second (around 32 Mbps).  Even after tunning some kernel parameters and some network parameters it was still dropping packets.

From what I have read the FreeBSD network stack is a lot better at this type of thing.  I am testing another FreeBSD box to see if it can keep up without dropping packets.  If it can keep up then I am going to use freeBSD for the sensors and stick with CentOS for the BASE front end.

UPDATE:  FreeBSD took it like a champ 0 dropped packets, so it looks like its FreeBSD for snort

Categories: Geeky stuff, Security

mdid Mysql authentication

November 3, 2006 Leave a comment

Mdid mysql authentication is finished, it is a dirty dirty dirty hack, but it works. Had to chop it into active directory authentication method since mdid does not support two different methods at the same time. Defiantly getting better at C# active directory took me a few days, since I don’t know how the AD api worked and also because I was hacking up someone else’s code. Mysql authentication took maybe 2 hours and most of that was googleing how to implement md5(base64) hashing in c#, it’s actually in System.Security.Cryptography which is nice, didn’t have to write my own function.

Categories: Geeky stuff